Second Language Writers' Text: Linguistic and Rhetorical Features (ESL & Applied Linguistics Professional Series)
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This comprehensive and detailed analysis of second language writers' text identifies explicitly and quantifiably where their text differs from that of native speakers of English. The book is based on the results of a large-scale study of university-level native-speaker and non-native-speaker essays written in response to six prompts. Specifically, the research investigates the frequencies of uses of 68 linguistic (syntactic and lexical) and rhetorical features in essays written by advanced non-native speakers compared with those in the essays of native speakers enrolled in first-year composition courses. The selection of features for inclusion in this analysis is based on their textual functions and meanings, as identified in earlier research on English language grammar and lexis. Such analysis is valuable because it can inform the teaching of grammar and lexis, as well as discourse, and serve as a basis for second language curriculum and course design; and provide valuable insight for second language pedagogical applications of the study's findings.
of text, and then back again when microstructures affect the macrolevel of the discourse whole. Van Dijk specified that it may not be possible to separate discourse studies from studies in psychology, sociology, and social interaction, as well as social and political institutions and organizations. CORPUS ANALYSES Text linguistics with its goal of identifying the principles and regularities of textual communication gave rise to computer analyses of large corpora in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s,
*one-tailed p Յ 0.05. **two-tailed p Յ 0.05. our best to find a solution to every problem we face (Indonesian). However, one reason for the disparity in the NS and NNS uses of enumeratives can be noted in the contexts where these nouns were employed. For instance, NSs employed these nouns to introduce points and lead to an elaboration of information, with more specific terms used in the elaboration of the points: People choose their major for many reasons. Some choose it because of their
(medians from 0.00 to 0.19), its frequency rates were significantly lower than those of NSs (median 0.38). Essentially, NNSs did not use would a great deal. THE PASSIVE VOICE (؉ BY-PHRASE) Textual Functions Passive constructions have been identified as one of the prominent features of academic and composition writing. Use of the passive voice is often intended to create an impersonal, indirect, and detached style and project the writer’s objectivity (Biber, 1988; Myers, 1989; Swales, 1990a).
essays. In addition, the ideational functions of condition clauses are also relatively complex. It appears that in NNS texts, noun clauses were used at similar or higher rates than in NS essays, and full adjective clause rates were less frequent in L2 compositions of only speakers of Korean and Vietnamese. It would be fair to say that both NSs and NNSs could benefit from additional language instruction that focuses particularly on uses and functions of subordinate clauses in written academic
significantly fewer advance/retroactive nouns and significantly more other types of nouns with simple lexical content, such as enumerative and vague nouns. In the essays of Japanese and Korean speakers, for example, the rates for resultative and interpretive nouns were also significantly higher than those in NS texts. For example, We can often see such an example like this around us in the world. The reason is parents spoil their children (Chinese). Pronouns. The use of pronouns in the essays on