The American Revolution (Landmark Books)
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In the American colonies of the 1770s, people were fed up with British laws. Local farmers and tradesmen secretly formed a militia. In 1775, when the British marched into Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts, the Americans were ready. From that first battle to the final showdown at Yorktown, the Americans fought against tremendous odds. The British army was bigger and better trained. Food and guns were scarce. But George Washington’s ragged army fought for–and won–the freedom and independence we cherish to this day.Illustrated with black-and-white photographs, the tale of our country's fight for independence is brought to life in fast-moving, dramatic detail.
Americans fled in panic to high ground at the upper end of Manhattan, named Harlem Heights. The Billopp House, Tottenville, Staten Island, New York. Here the Howe brothers, on September 11, 1776, conferred with Franklin, Adams and Rutledge, hoping that peaceful negotiation might still be possible. The next day the Americans met the British in front of the Heights in a small battle, and for a change it was the British who retreated. Still, Washington realized he had to leave Manhattan because
Princeton, but south down the main road toward Trenton. In the meantime, part of the British rear guard had been driven the other way, back to Princeton. Some of them had gone north on the road to New Brunswick. Another group, 194 men, took refuge in Nassau Hall, then—and now—part of Princeton University. Captain Alexander Hamilton, an American artilleryman, fired one shot into the building. Then a party of New Jersey men entered it and the entire British group was taken prisoner. Washington
winter of 1777–1778. The situation at York was also improving. When the absent delegates returned to Congress from their home states and saw what Washington’s political enemies had done while they were away, Congress dropped Gates from the Board of War. And in Conway’s place as inspector general, it put Baron von Steuben. Even the supply situation improved. Nathanael Greene, one of Washington’s best generals, was given the thankless job of quartermaster. And he managed to find the army some
had only implied—a principle more hateful, in the long run, than even the despised blue stamps. But for the time being Americans felt that the lifting of an unfair set of taxes was a great relief. England’s budget problems, on the other hand, were as much of a headache as ever. The American colonies were proving a poor source of income for the Exchequer, as the British call their treasury. English land taxes remained frightfully high. And there was considerable grumbling. King George, as
bands played an old tune called “The World Turned Upside Down.” The words of the song mention such upside-down events as mice chasing cats and grass eating cows, and perhaps the defeated British felt that their world had indeed turned upside down. The Americans and French were well behaved, trying not to insult the soldiers they had defeated. But they looked proud, and they could not conceal their smiles of joy. Cornwallis did not come out to hand his sword to Washington. He said he was sick,